eristikós: erístico. Essa palavra quer dizer: "referente à disputa". A erística, desde o século IV a.C, era uma arte da discussão, para vencer o adversário sem preocupação com a verdade; apenas a habilidade da argumentação era considerada. Euclides, discípulo de Sócrates, fundou em Mégara uma chamada escola erística, que Platão frequentou na juventude. [Gobry]


Segundo Jayme Paviani (Filosofia e Método em Platão) é a técnica da controvérsia, da "luta" verbal em que se utilizam meios lógicos e principalmente linguísticos, muitas vezes de um modo inadequado. Esse processo valoriza mais o debate do que a busca da verdade. A escola Erística foi fundada por Euclides, em Mégara.

Para Mário Ferreira dos Santos, segundo Aristóteles, é erístico todo o raciocínio especioso, ou aquele fundado sobre premissas especiosas, com o intuito de vencer o adversário. Opõe-se ao apodítico e ao raciocínio dialético.


Contra as falácias dialéticas dos sofistas.

Resumo de Jean Brun
No Eutidemo, em que Sócrates denuncia também a vaidade do saber enciclopédico dos sofistas, é-nos dito que, mesmo que existisse uma ciência capaz de tornar imortal, de nada serviria se não soubéssemos usar essa imortalidade. Precisamos, então, de um saber que ao mesmo tempo produza e saiba usar aquilo que produz (289 b).

Jowett: Phaedo (99d-102b) — O método

Socrates proceeded : I thought that as I had failed in the contemplation of true existence, I ought to be careful that I did not lose the eye of my soul ; as people may injure their bodily eye by observing and gazing on the sun during an eclipse, unless they take the precaution of only looking at the image reflected in the water, or in some similar medium. That occurred to me, and I was afraid that my soul might be blinded altogether if I looked at things with my eyes or tried by the help of the senses to apprehend them.

Jowett: Euthydemus 304b-307c — Epílogo

Such was the discussion, Crito ; and after a few more words had passed between us we went away. I hope that you will come to them with me, since they say that they are able to teach any one who will give them money ; no age or want of capacity is an impediment. And I must repeat one thing which they said, for your especial benefit, — that the learning of their art did not at all interfere with the business of money-making.

Jowett: Euthydemus 300e-304b — Sócrates retoma a discussão

Why do you laugh, Cleinias, I said, at such solemn and beautiful things ?

Why, Socrates, said Dionysodorus, did you ever see a beautiful thing ?

Yes, Dionysodorus, I replied, I have seen many. Were they other than the beautiful, or the same as the beautiful ?

Now I was in a great quandary at having to answer this question, and I thought that I was rightly served for having opened my mouth at all : I said however, They are not the same as absolute beauty, but they have beauty present with each of them.

Jowett: Euthydemus 298b-300d — Ctesipo retoma a cena

Ctesippus, here taking up the argument, said : And is not your father in the same case, for he is other than my father ?

Assuredly not, said Euthydemus.

Then he is the same ?

He is the same.

I cannot say that I like the connection ; but is he only my father, Euthydemus, or is he the father of all other men ?

Of all other men, he replied. Do you suppose the same person to be a father and not a father ?

Certainly, I did so imagine, said Ctesippus.

And do you suppose that gold is not gold, or that a man is not a man ?

Jowett: Euthydemus 293b-294b — Sofistas x Sócrates

Would you rather, Socrates, said he, that I should show you this knowledge about which you have been doubting, or shall I prove that you already have it ?

What, I said, are you blessed with such a power as this ?

Indeed I am.

Then I would much rather that you should prove me to have such a knowledge ; at my time of life that will be more agreeable than having to learn.

Then tell me, he said, do you know anything ?

Yes, I said, I know many things, but not anything of much importance.

Jowett: Euthydemus 292e-304b — Terceira discussão entre os sofistas

Soc. Thereupon, Crito, seeing that I was on the point of shipwreck, I lifted up my voice, and earnestly entreated and called upon the strangers to save me and the youth from the whirlpool of the argument ; they were our Castor and Pollux, I said, and they should be serious, and show us in sober earnest what that knowledge was which would enable us to pass the rest of our lives in happiness.

Cri. And did Euthydemus show you this knowledge ?

Soc. Yes, indeed ; he proceeded in a lofty strain to the following effect :

Jowett: Euthydemus 290e-292e — Impasse da investigação

Cri. And do you mean, Socrates, that the youngster said all this ?

Soc. Are you incredulous, Crito ?

Cri. Indeed, I am ; for if he did say so, then in my opinion he needs neither Euthydemus nor any one else to be his instructor.

Soc. Perhaps I may have forgotten, and Ctesippus was the real answerer.

Cri. Ctesippus ! nonsense.

Soc. All I know is that I heard these words, and that they were not spoken either by Euthydemus or Dionysodorus. I dare say, my good Crito, that they may have been spoken by some superior person : that I heard them I am certain.