Zeller: A Antiga Academia

Obra do século XIX, mas consagrada por ser de um dos grandes estudiosos da tradição grega, Eduard Zeller.
Plato and the older academy

CHAPTER I. PLATO'S LIFE.
Childhood and Youth
Relation to Socrates
Sojourn at Megara. Travels
Teaching in the Academy
Attitude to Politics. Second and third Sicilian journeys
Death
Character

CHAPTER II. PLATO'S WRITINGS.
General Enquiry into the State of our Collection ; its Completeness
Genuineness
External Evidence
References of Aristotle
Review of these
Value of their Testimony
Criterion of Authenticity in Platonic Writings
Particular Dialogues
Plato's Writings the Records of his Philosophy

CHAPTER III. THE ORDER OF THE PLATONIC WORKS.
Scope and Design of the Enquiry
Early Attempts at an Arrangement of the Writings
Schleiermacher
Hermann
Their Followers
Standard of Criticism
Its application to our Collection
Early Works
Gorgias, Meno, Thesetetus, Euthydemus, Phiedrus
Sophist, Politicus, Parmenides, Philebus, Euthydemus, Cratylus, Symposium, Phedo
Republic, Tinuous, Critias, Laws

CHAPTER IV. CHARACTER, METHOD, AND DIVISION OF PLATO PHILOSOPHY
Character in relation to Socrates
To the pre-Socratics
Dialeclic Method
Form of Plato's Writings. Philosophic Dialogue
Connection with the Personality of Socrates
Myths
Division of the System

CHAPTER V. PROPEDEUTIC GROUNDWORK OF PLATO'S DOCTRINE
1. Ordinary Consciousness. Its Theoretic Side
Its Practical Side
2. Sophistic Doctrine. Its Theory of Knowledge
Its Ethics
Sophistic as a Whole
3. Philosophy
The Philosophic Impulse, Eros
The Philosophic Method, Dialectic
Its Elements; Formation of Concepts
Classification
Logical Determinations
Language
Philosophy as a Whole ; Stages of Philosophic Development

CHAPTER VI. DIALECTIC, OR THE DOCTRINE OF IDEAS
1. The Doctrine of Ideas founded upon that of Knowledge
And of Being
Proofs as given by Aristotle
Historic Origin of the Doctrine
2. Concept of Ideas
Ideas as Universais or Genera
As Substances
As Concrete Unities
Or Numbers
As Living Powers
3. The World of Ideas
Extent
Subdivisions
The most Universal categories
The Highest Idea, the Good, and God

CHAPTER VII. PHYSICS.
General Causes of lhe World of Phenomena
1. Matter. Its Derivation
Description of Matter
Not a Primeval, Corporeal Substance
Not the Product of Envisagement or Opinion
Out of Space
Ditliculties of this Theory
2. Relation of Sensible Objects to the Idea
Immanence of Things in Ideas
No derivation of the World of Sense
Reasons against the Identification of Matter with the Unlimited in the Ideas
Lacuna in the System at this point
Participation of things in Ideas
Reason and Necessity ; Physical and Final Causes .
3. The World-Soul
Connection of this Doctrine with Plato's whole System
Nature of the Soul
The Soul and the Mathematical Principle
The Soul as the Cause of Motion
And of Knowledge

CHAPTER VIII. PHYSICS (CONTINUED).
The World-System and its Parts
How far these Discussions arc valuable and important
1. The Origin of the World. Question of its beginning in Time
2. Formation of the Elements. Teleological Derivation
Physical Derivation
Properties, Distribution, Admixture, Motion, Decomposition
3. The World-System ; the Heavenly Bodies ; Time ; the Cosmical Year
The World as the Become (Gcwordene) God

CHAPTER IX. PHYSICS (CONTINUED).
Man
Nature of the Human Soul
' Its Mythical History
Dogmatic Element in this mode of Representation
Immortality
Pre-existenco
Recollection, Transmigration, and Future Retribution
Parts of the Soul
Freewill
Relation of the Soul to the Body
Physiological Theories
Plants and Animals
Difference of Sex
Diseases

CHAPTER X. ETHICS
1. The Highest Good
Withdrawal from the World of Sense
Relative Value ascribed to it
2. Virtue
Virtue and Happiness
Socratic and Platonic Doctrine of Virtue
Natural Disposition
Customary and Philosophic Virtue
Plurality of Virtues ; Primary Virtues
The Distinctive Peculiarities of Plato's Ethics

CHAPTER XI. ETHICS (CONTINUED).
The State
End and Problem of the State
Philosophy as the Condition of the true State
The Constitution of the State
Importance of Public Institutions ; aristocratic character of the
Platonic Constitution
Separation and Relation of Classes
This Constitution based upon Plato's whole System
Social Regulations ; Parentage
Education
Citizens' Manner of Life; Community of Goods, Wives, and Children
Significance of this Political Ideal from Plato's Point of View.
Influences that led him to it
Its affinity with the Modern State
Defective States

CHAPTER XII. PLATO'S VIEWS ON RELIGION AND ART
1. Religion. The Religion of the Philosopher; Purification of the Popular Faith
Visible Gods
Popular Religion
General Result
2. Art
The Beautiful
Artistic Inspiration
Imitation
Supervision of Art
Particular Arts
Rhetoric

CHAPTER XIII. THE LATER FORM OF PLATONIC DOCTRINE.
The laws
The Platonic Doctrine according to Aristotle
The Laws. Point of View
Philosophy less prominent
Religious Character
Importance of Mathematics
Ethics
Particular Legislation
Politics
Constitution
Social Regulations
General Character of the Laws ; Divergences from Plato's original
Point of View—the Evil World-Soul
Authenticity

CHAPTER XIV. THE OLDER ACADEMY. SPEUSIPPUS.
Platonic School. External History
Character of its Philosophy
Speusippus' Theory of Knowledge
First Principles ; the Good and the Soul
Numbers
Magnitudes
Fragments of his Physics
Ethics

CHAPTER XV. THE OLDER ACADEMY (CONTINUED). XENOCRATES
Divisions of Philosophy
Kinds and Stages of Knowledge
First Principles
Number and Ideas
Spatial Magnitudes
The Soul
Cosmology
Gods and Demons
Elements. Formation of the World
Psychology
Ethics

CHAPTER XVI. OTHER PHILOSOPHERS OF THE ACADEMY
Metaphysical Enquiries
Heraclides
Eudoxus
The Epinomis
Polemo
Cratea, Crantor