Bigg: Os Cristãos Platônicos de Alexandria

The Christian Platonists of Alexandria, Charles Bigg

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS
LECTURE I - INTRODUCTION. PHILO AND THE GNOSTICS

THE MUSEUM OF ALEXANDRIA
Influence of the Pagan University upon Christian thought only distant and indirect
THE EGYPTIAN JEWS were the active mediators between European and Oriental ideas
Their wealth, numbers, and privileges
The Septuagint and consequent outbreak of literary Activity
Propaganda
Hellenism
Aristeas
Aristobulus
Greek Philosophy stolen from the Jew
Logos Doctrine before Philo
PHILO
Opposition to Anthropomorphism
Negative Conception of Deity
Limitation of the Analytic Method in Philo
Evil of Matter
Hence Creation and Providence delegated to Subordinate Powers
Relation of Powers to Angels, Logoi, Ideas, Demons
The Two Powers of Goodness and Justice
Their indistinct Personality
Relation to earlier Jewish speculations
The Logos
History of the Term
Relation of the Logos to GOD
Wisdom
Intelligible World
Schechinah
Eldest Son
Second God
Relation of the Logos to the Two Powers
Book of Creation
King's Architect
Charioteer
Relation of the Logos to the World
Seal
High Priest's Vesture
Creator
Helmsman, Pilot of Creation
Vicegerent of God
Relation of the Logos to Man
Heavenly Man
Mediator as Prophet and Law as High Priest and Atoner
The Two Lives, corresponding to the distinction between GOD and the Logos
Faith and Wisdom
The Three Paths
Vision, Ecstasy
Relation of Philonism to historic Judaism
Relation of Philonism to the Christian Church
Facilitated the definition of the Trinity
Impeded the understanding of the Atonement
Intellectualism—its good and evil
THE GNOSTICS
Subordinate interest of Gnostic Metaphysics
Their predominant Ethical motive
Plutarch and the Heathen Gnostics
The Christian Gnostics
Their Dualism
Their Exegesis
Their Theory of Salvation
Christology of Theodotus
The Three Natures of Man
Eschatology
Relation of Gnosticism to Platonism, Mazdeism, Ebionitism, St Paul
General Character and Effects of Gnosticism

LECTURE II - CLEMENT
THE ALEXANDRINE CHURCH
Founded according to tradition by St
Its wealth and importance at the end of the second century
Its conservatism in ritual and discipline
Changes effected by Demetrius
The College of Presbyters
The Suffragan Bishops
The Catechetical School
Object of the Institution
Course of Instruction
The first Master Athenagoras (?)
Pantaenus
T FLAVIUS CLEMENS
His Life
His Character and Attainments
His Love of Literature
And of Philosophy
Unity of Truth
Science a Covenant of God
Apologists not unfriendly to Philosophy
Philosophy brought into discredit by the Gnostics
His position on one side Rationalist, on another Mystic
The Canon of Scripture
How far settled in Clement's time
'Paulinism'
The Unity of Scripture
Denied on moral grounds by the Ebionites and by the Gnostics Clement defends the Moral Law by maintaining the essential identity of Justice and Goodness
And the Sacrificial Law on the ground of its permanent doctrinal value
Allegorism the Key to the Unity of Scripture General character of Alexandrine Allegorism
Opposition to popular Theology
Reserve
THE HOLY TRINITY
Universal admission of the doctrine in some shape or other
Previous Speculation on the subject
The Prophoric Logos
THE FATHER
Method of Clement
The Revelation of Scripture
Analysis or Elimination
The Monad
The Son the Consciousness of God
Relation of Clement to Neo-Platonism
Futility of his Method
THE SON
His Personality
Terminology of Clement
Use of Philonic phraseology
Clement rejects the term ' Prophoric Logos'
Subordinationism strictly secondary in Clement
THE HOLY SPIRIT
His Personality not yet clearly denned
How far explained by Clement
Office of the Holy Spirit
Jealousy of Pantheism
THE INCARNATION AND REDEMPTION
The Human Soul of Jesus
Semi-Docetism
The Passion of Jesus undesigned by God
Christ the Light of the World
Hellenism in Clement's view of Redemption
The Ransom
Forgiveness
Reconciliation and Propitiation
Clement's Typology
Manifestation of Christ as Man in the Lower Life, as Physician, Shepherd, Tutor, Lawgiver
In the higher Life as God, as Light, Truth, Life
As High Priest
Redemption the consummation of the spiritual development of mankind
LECTURE III - CLEMENT
Creation
Denial of Pre-existence and of Eternity of Matter
The Six Days allegorised
The Soul of Man
The Origin of Evil
Opposition to Gnosticism
The Freedom of the Will
Departure from Plato and St
Rejection of Determinism
Indifferentism
Doctrine of Original Sin unknown to Clement
Adam potentially not actually perfect
The Soul does not descend from Adam
Allegorism of the Fall
Infant Baptism not the rule at Alexandria
Faith and Grace
The Baptism of Regeneration
The Two Lives
Historical Conditions of Clement's view
Gnosticism and Paulinism
Legalism
Necessity of Discipline enhanced by the rapid expansion
of the Church
Social, moral, spiritual inequality amongst the brethren
familiar
Documentary sources of his view
Heathen Philosophy
Apostolic Fathers
Scripture
Characteristic Notes of the Two Lives
Faith, Fear, Holiness
Knowledge, Love, Righteousness
The Compromise between the Church and the World
Criticism of this Via Media
How different from Gnosticism
Breach of continuity between the Two Lives
Egotism
Clement's treatment of Faith And of Hope
The Lower Life as described in the Pedagogue
Stoicism
Aristotelianism
The Higher Life
Described in terms borrowed from the Greek Mysteries
Indefectibility of Knowledge
Object of Knowledge
Holiness the indispensable condition of Knowledge
Necessity of mental cultivation
Love
Relation to Knowledge
How affected by Stoicism and Platonism
Apathy
Disinterested Love
Relation of Clement's view to Mysticism
Stress laid upon Holiness
And upon Righteousness
And upon due use of the Means of Grace
Silent Prayer
The indefectibility of Gnosis excludes Ecstasy
Songs
The Church
One
Holy
The Priesthood
The Gnostic the only Hiereus
Sacrifice
Penance
Spiritual Direction
The Eucharist
Not separate at Alexandria from the Agape
The Public Agape
The Doke
The House-Supper
The Eucharistic Grace
It is Gnosis
Eschatology
Resurrection
Pagan doctrine of Immortality
Variety of opinion in the Church
Resurrection of 'this flesh'
Chiliasm
Belief in the nearness of the End of the World
Clement's own view
The glorified body
The double office of Fire
Punishments
Spiritual in nature
The prayers of the Saints
Possibility of Repentance till the Last Day The State of the Blessed
All purged by Fire
The Seven Heavens
The Ogdoad of Rest
The Poena Damni
The Beatific Vision

LECTURE IV - ORIGEN
His Life and Character
His Works
Textual Criticism
The New Testament
The Hexapla
Origen's knowledge of Hebrew
The Controversy with Africanus
Exegesis
The Scholia
The Homilies
Church-buildings, Liturgy, Character of the Congregation
Origen as a Preacher
The Commentaries
Their general plan
Origen's services as an Expositor of the real sense of
Scripture
Allegorism
General difference between Clement and Origen
The Law of Correspondence
The Three Senses of Scripture
How distinguished
The Negative use of Allegorism
Denial of the Literal Sense
Reasons for this
Biographical interest of Origen's view
The Positive use of Allegorism
The Discovery of Mysteries
Economy or Reserve
The Two Lives in Origen
Scope and Purpose of Alexandrine Reserve Erroneous inferences that have been drawn from it
How far capable of defence
It is seen at its worst on its Apologetic side
Its Positive use
Differing judgments
In application to the Old Testament it confounds
symbol with proof
In application to the Church of the Present it is the
expression of spiritual freedom and enlightenment

LECTURE V - ORIGEN
The Regula Fidei
Anxiety of Origen to keep within the Canon
His teaching always Scriptural
The Three Methods of Pagan Theology
The Christian Method
THE NATURE OF GOD
The Negative Attributes
The Positive Attributes
God not Impassible
Our knowledge of Him inadequate but true
God is Perfect, not Absolute
Limitation of Creation
Eternity of Creation
Optimism
Divine Power conditioned by Goodness and Wisdom
THE HOLY TRINITY
Theodotus
The Noetians
Hypostasis
The Mystery of the Economy
THE FATHER
THE SON
His Hypostasis
Coetemity
Epinoiai of the Son
Essential—Wisdom, Word, Light, Truth
Accidental—Propitiation, Redemption, Mediation
In what sense the office of Mediation ceases
THE HOLY SPIRIT
His Relation to the other Persons undetermined
The title ' God'
Coeternity and Coequality
His Office
THE UNITY IN TRINITY
The Translations of Rufinus
Persons numerically but not locally distinct
The Allegorism of the Shew Bread
The Eternal Generation
Rejection of the terms ' Projection,' * Prophoric'
Unity of Perfect Harmony
Unity of Substance
The term Homoousios
Unity of Derivation
Subordinationism
Origen's view Scriptural, not Metaphysical
Prayer to the Son
How limited by Origen
Conservatism of his language ,
THE INCARNATION
The God-Man
The Human Soul of Jesus
The Flesh of Jesus
The last trace of Docetism
The Humanity of Jesus eternal

LECTURE VI - ORIGEN
Creation
The Eternity before and after this World
Disorder of Creation
Injustice, Inequality
Pre-existence
The First Heaven and Earth
Free Will
The Visible Heaven and Earth
The Soul of Man
Philosophical objections to Origen's theory
Scriptural objections
Predestination
Grace
Original Sin
Origen did not at first hold this tenet
Grounds of his later belief
Infant Baptism
Law of Purification
' Seed of Abraham'
Fall of Adam
Descent of Sinless Souls
The 'Reign of Death'
Sense of Guilt stronger in Origen than in Clement
The Four Revelations
The Natural Law
Position of the Gentiles
The Law of Moses
Not the cause of Sin
Idea of Development not so clear in Origen as in Clement
PACE
The Gospel
The Two Lives
Faith and Wisdom
The object of Faith
Levitical Typology
Ransom
Propitiation
The Duplex Hostia
The Church
One and Catholic
The Promise to Peter
Rome
The Clergy
Symbolised by the Mosaic Hierarchy
The Dominion of Grace
Confession
Penance
Origen's View
The Eucharist
Growing sense of reverence and mystery
In what sense the Eucharist is a Mystery
The Presence of Christ, in what sense Real
The Eternal Gospel
The Spiritual Church
Meaning and scope of the Eternal Gospel
Hades and Paradise
The Day of Judgment
The Resurrection of the Flesh
The ' Germinative Principle *
Details of his View
The Aeons to Come
Enduring Freedom
Rise and Fall of the Soul
Uncertainty of Origen's opinion
The' Refiner's Fire'
Punishment, its nature and object
General Principles of Origen
Scriptural basis
The word • Eternal'
The voice of Scripture

LECTURE VII - THE REFORMED PAGANISM
The Second Century an Age of Revival
ORIENTAL HENOTHEISM
MlTHRA
Previous history of Mithraism
Redemption
Atonement
The Taurobolium
The Mithraic Messiah
Mithraic Eschatology
Hierarchy
Sarapis
Connection with Ebionitism and Valentinianism
And with Christianity
THE PHILOSOPHERS
The Belief in the Immortality of the Soul
THE PYTHAGOREANS
Their General Character
Their Rivalry with Christianity * 242
The Life of Apollonius
Its Origin and Purpose
Outline of the Book
The Imperial Eirenicon
THE TRINITARIAN PLATONISTS
The Platonic Letters
Platonic Monotheism, Ditheism, Tritheism 250
Numenius of Apamea
His Trinity
His Obligation to Philo
And to Christianity
His relation to Plotinus
The Consummation of All Things
The Beatific Vision
THE UNITARIAN PLATONISTS
Celsus
The True Word
Origen's Reply
Celsus not an Epicurean
His character, attainments, and temper
The One God
The Demons
Special Providence
Mediation
The Two Lives
Chief Points in the Debate
Knowledge of God in Christ
A Priori Objections of Celsus
Historical Objections of Celsus
Miracles
Prophecy
Sufferings of the Apostles
Nature and Origin of Evil
Resurrection of the Body
Celsus' attempt at Reconciliation

LECTURE VIII - SUMMARY
CLEMENT
His after History
The Index of Gelasius
Photius
Neglect of Clement's Writings
Is Clement a Saint ?
FACE
ORIGEN
His books condemned by Theophilus and Epiphanius
Condemnations of the Home Synod and the Fifth Council 276
Treatment of his Name
Importance of the Historical point of view
ALEXANDRINE EXEGESIS
In what sense it survived
SPECIAL DOCTRINES
Pre-existence
PAULINISM
How far understood by the Alexandrines
Free Will and Grace
Doctrine of the Alexandrines
Doctrine of Augustine
Redemption
Doctrine of Origen
of Augustine
of Anselm
Resurrection
Restitution
Clement and Origen not strictly speaking Universalists 292 In what sense Punishment is Eternal
Other opinions on the subject
The Monks of Egypt and Palestine
Diodorus and Theodore
The two Gregories
Jerome
The Doctrine of Purgatory
In the Greek Church
In the Roman Church
Distinction between the Doctrine of Purgatory and
the speculations of Origen
Relation of Origenism to our own belief
QUIETISM
Relation of the Quietists to Clement Substantial justice of their condemnation
Reasonableness
Services against Gnosticism, Chiliasm, and Montanism Their Preaching of the Fatherhood of God